BOREWELL AQUIFERS TYPES

borewell aquifers types in pondicherry
Borewell Aquifers level

Cretaceous Aquifers Type 1

Among the different water bearing developments of the Cretaceous age, the Ramanathapuram and Vanur arrangements are likely springs. They happen in the north-western piece of Puducherry Region and are experienced in the boreholes bored in a significant piece of the area. The springs of the above arrangements incorporate sands and calcareous sandstones. They are coarse-grained in the western part and grade into better facies towards the east and upper east. The thickness of these springs goes from 38 to 92 m. The yields of the cylinder wells with profundities are somewhere in the range of 65 and 400 m, tapping these springs differ somewhere in the range of 800 and 1500 lpm. 

The thickness of the springs in upper Cretaceous Ottai developments shifts somewhere in the range of 42 and 56 m, and the water bearing property is primarily dependant on a couple of groups of fine-grained sandstones and limestones. The yields of the wells tapping these springs differ somewhere in the range of 1015 and 2210 lpm for drawdowns going from 6.6 to 25 m. The piezometric head differed between 8.60 to 63.24 m bgl (Jume 2006) during premonsoon and 8.14 to 54.32 m bgl during post rainstorm. 

Tertiary Aquifers Type 1

Cuddalore sandstone, Kadapperikuppam development and Manaveli arrangement are the three stratigraphic units of Tertiary springs. Out of the three, the Manaveli development of Paleocene is essentially an aquitard, and the limited granular zones don't give any calculable yield. Another unit of this gathering, specifically the Kadapperikuppam arrangement, contains some useful auifers. The thickness of this spring shows wide horizontal and vertical varieties. 

The Cuddalore sandstones of Mio-Pliocene age establish the most expected springs. The Cuddalore sandstones including sandstones, sands and rock involve a broad region. The thickness of these springs ranges somewhere in the range of 20 and 245 m. Ground water happens this spring primarily under bound conditions and is created through tubewells going in profundities somewhere in the range of 27 and 366 m. The yields of the cylinder wells range somewhere in the range of 200 and 3000 lpm for drawdowns fluctuating from 5 to 10 m. 

The Kadapperikuppam springs are comprised of fine-grained sandstones and offer moderate to great supplies of water as seen around Sedarapalli, Pillaiyarkuppam and further upper east. The thickness of spring ranges somewhere in the range of 52 and 90 m south of Gingee stream, while in the space north of Gingee waterway stream, it is somewhere in the range of 13 and 37 m. 

The piezometric head shifted between 6.09 to 33.87 m bgl (June 2006) during the premonsoon and 6.07 to 32.35 m bgl during the post-rainstorm.

Alluvial Aquifers Type 1

Sands and rock establish the alluvial springs. Alluvial stores possess almost three fourth of the area. These springs structure the most potential shallow spring framework nearby. The thickness of these springs ranges somewhere in the range of 5 and 34 m. Thick alluvial springs happen in the space lined by Thirukanji, Odiyampet, Tavalapet, Villiyanur, Mangalam and Satyamangalam. In these, ground water is submerged below the table, or there are semi-restricted conditions. The profundity of tubewells tapping these springs ranges somewhere in the range of 25 and 50 mbgl.

Ground Water Resources 

The unique ground water assets have been registered mutually by Central Ground Water Board and Groundwater Unit of Department of Agriculture, Government of Puducherry as on 31st March 2004. The notable components of the calculations are outfitted underneath.

Alluvial Aquifers Type 2

The scientific information of water tests from shallow tubewells tapping the alluvial springs are practically nonpartisan to soluble in nature, with pH varying from 7 to 9. The water is for the most part bicarbonate-chloride type, the bicarbonate prevailing over chloride. Either the carbonate was by and large missing, or it happened in the following way. The chloride content was by and large inside as far as possible with the exception of a few wells along the beach front belt in alluvial developments where it arrived at a limit of 8650 mg/l at Murungapakkam. Anyway, lately because of deceitful advancement of ground water, the shallow alluvial springs along the coast give indications of value decay presumably because of ocean water interruption prompting the event of Sodium-Chloride sort of water from Sodium-bicarbonate. 

The Electrical Conductivity measurements in a significant piece of the district were under 1500 µS/cm at 25°C, which increments to around 2000 µS/cm at 25°C close to the coast in the east, focal and little fix on the southwestern part. Limited patches with expansion in saltiness of EC in excess of 30,000 µS/cm at 25°C was seen along the seaside belt, which might be because of ocean water pollution. 

Tertiary Aquifers Type 2

The nature of ground water tapped from tertiary springs is antacid with pH going from 7.4 to 9.8. Carbonate is nearly nil in the vast majority of the examples. The water from these springs is, as a general rule, Calcium-Magnesium-Bicarbonate type. Notwithstanding, development water in the majority of the more profound wells built along the coast showed an adjustment of value prompting Sodium-Chloride kind of water. Among the distinctive hydro-stratigraphic units, the water from Cuddalore sandstone gathering of the Mio-Pliocene was similarly superior to Kadaperikuppam and Manaveli springs. The chloride content was for the most part inside the admissible breaking point aside from a few wells along the seaside belt where it arrived at a limit of 2975 mg/l at Murungapakkam. The fluoride esteem overall went from 0.2 to 0.4 mg/l. Besides, at Kanniakoil, Kizparikalpet, Murungapakkam and Utchimedu, pieces of the area falling in the super southeastern pieces of the area were recorded from 1.1 to 1.6 mg/l. Be that as it may, higher convergences of iron were recorded in certain pockets going from 0.29 to 20 mg/l and the greatest worth being at Odiampet. 

The Electrical Conductivity Values were under 1500 µS/cm at 25°C in a significant piece of the locale, aside from certain patches along the coast where the greatest EC worth of 8280 µS/cm at 25°C was recorded at Murungapakkam, which might be because of ocean water interruption. 

Cretaceous Aquifers Type 2

The nature of ground water in the Cretaceous spring framework is somewhat soluble with pH going from 7.7 to 9.4. The centralization of chloride is by and large inside 150 ppm, with the exception of the separated regions at Madagadipet and Thondamanatham. The substance of fluoride went from 0.2 to 0.6 mg/l in the district. The convergence of iron fluctuated from 0.3 to 5.5 mh/l and the most extreme at Katterikuppam. The most extreme amount of sulfate, 288 mg/l, was seen at Sedarapet. 

The Electrical Conductivity values are under 1500 µS/cm at 25°C with the exception of a pocket in the western part where higher EC upsides of 7280 µS/cm at 25°C were seen at Madagadipet. Ground water from all the spring frameworks is, as a general rule, appropriate both for homegrown and irrigational needs with the exception of separated patches where high iron and chloride fixations are accounted for. The water from Phreatic/Alluvial, Tertiary and Cretaceous springs from significant pieces of the locale is of medium to high saltiness and low sodium peril, according to U.S. Saltiness lab order. Anyway, water with high saltiness and medium sodium danger is accounted for from both Alluvial and Tertiary springs in the seaside spaces of Puducherry area. Exceptionally high saltiness and high sodium are accounted for from select wells along the coast because of ocean water interruption. The appropriateness of ground water for businesses relies upon the kind of industry and the interaction in question. The waters must be treated for mellowing for mechanical uses now and again. 

Status of Ground Water Development

The assessment of groundwater assets for the locale has shown that the Puducherry Region is over taken advantage of. Cylinder wells are the lone ground water reflection structures utilized for both the homegrown and water system in the area. The yield of cylinder wells in shallow Alluvial springs is the request for 1 to 2 lakh liters/day. The extraction of ground water by shallow cylinder wells in the Alluvium is a request for 2.5 ha. /year. The normal order region for a tube well is around 3 ha. 

The profound cylinder wells of 200-mm dia and 100 – 400-m profundity in Tertiary and Cretaceous springs can yield as high as 1000 lpm release, which can be siphoned with 10 to 15 HP submarine siphons. The normal yearly draft of profound cylinder wells fluctuates from 70 – 200 m3/hr. Accepting 200 days siphoning in a year, with normal day-by-day siphoning of 10 hours, the yearly draft shifts from 0.14 to 0.40 MCM.

GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

Groundwater Development

Without backwoods and fruitless terrains, around 49% of the complete topographical space of the Puducherry locale of U.T. of Puducherry has been arranged as land not accessible for development, including current and other neglected terrains. Subsequently, around 51% of the all-out topographical region is accessible for arranging of ground water the board in the districts. 

According to the groundwater asset assessment dependent on GEC 1997 standards, the degree of groundwater improvement as in March 2004 is 179 percent in the Puducherry area. As the ground water improvement in the Puducherry area is fairly exceptionally high, no further groundwater advancement is to be supported. Then again, there is an earnest requirement for guideline of over-abuse, security and increase of ground water assets to re-energize the exhausted spring frameworks. To accomplish this objective, the accompanying exercises may must be taken up nearby. 

Reasonable evaluation of groundwater draft by different sectors, strict administrative measures to guarantee no further advancement of groundwater in over-took advantage of regions, with the exception of drinking water supplies, measures for increasing groundwater assets through downpour water reaping and counterfeit recharge creation of mass mindfulness for change of editing example to suit groundwater accessibility and revitalisation of existing water collecting structures and their inventory channels. 

The more profound semi-restricted a lot of springs in the space are likewise being broadly evolved by different areas. An investigation of the conduct of groundwater levels in the space shows the improvement of land ward water powered slope in pieces of both Tertiary and Cretaceous springs. Taking into account these and considering the way that the overlying phreatic springs are now desaturated, no further advancement is considered plausible for the more profound springs too. 

A program of escalated water level and water quality observing might be carried out nearby to screen the adequacy of administrative measures and re-energize increase plans being taken up nearby. Further, advancement of groundwater assets could be viewed as just when critical enhancements in the groundwater assets in these springs have been set up. 

WATER CONSERVATION AND  ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE

The geography of Puducherry area, as a rule, is appropriate for development of different fake re-energize designs, for example, permeation lakes and check dams. Nonetheless, nitty-gritty examinations are important to form a far-reaching plan for the re-energizing of phreatic ground water in the locale taking into account the varieties in the geomorphic set-up and the complex hydrological and hydrogeological conditions. 

The number and sort of counterfeit re-energize structures suggested for the Puducherry area are outfitted in Table 1. The specific areas of these designs, nonetheless, are to be settled based on itemized field examinations and execution of the plans might be taken up in stages.

It is likewise suggested that re-energize wells may likewise be penetrated to re-energize the more profound springs any place important as the more profound springs are additionally similarly being created in the area. 

Free specialized direction for execution of rooftop top downpour water collecting plans is likewise being given by Central Ground Water Board.

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